Goals and strategies in teaching beginners & elementary learners(from a talk by Robert O'Neill circa 1980 post publication of "Kernel One")
Goals can be classified by TYPE and STATUS. See "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives"
- Long term
- Mid term
- Short term.
- Correcting and
- Linking lesson-segments to lessons
- Linking lesson-segments to blocks of lessons
- Linking blocks of lessons to overall goals
- Establishing rapport with the class
- Establishing rapport and interaction between members of the class.
TEACHING BEGINNERS: with reference to Robert O'Neill's Kernel One 1978 Longman SB 51925 X TB 51926 8
Two basically different approaches to teaching beginners:
- Select simple structures and vocabulary
- Move from one step to the next slowly and carefully
- emphasize accuracy throughout.
- Select only according to strict functional criteria
- Present & practise variety of structures and lexis in one lesson
- Emphasize fluency rather than accuracy.
- What's your name? My name is..
- What time is it? (1-6 o'clock)
- What's his/her name?
- What time is it? (7-12 o'clock)
- Is/isn't a city/country ... is/isn't a big/small country ... is in ...
- He/she is in ... Is he/she in..? Yes/No is/isn't
- .. is a big/small country/city
- Are you in..? Yes, I am/ No, I'm not.
- He/She is from.....
- Where's ...from?
- Where are you from? I'm from..
- Are you from..? Yes, I am. No, I'm not.
- ... is near... It's a town/city
- He/She has got a bike/ small/big car.
- What about you? I've got a...
- I haven't got a.. He/She hasn't got a
- Have you got a Has he got a phone/flat/house/bike?
- Numbers 12-100.
- Talking about ones job, salary, colleagues
- Describing ones own flat or house, giving such information as address, telephone number, how to get to where one lives
- Describing ones own hobbies & interests
- Getting information from others in reference to three above themes
- Getting and giving opinions about films, books, clothes, food, other people's behaviour and tastes
- Family, home and friends (describing relationships, "doing" socialising language)
- Talking about, buying and ordering food & clothes
- Making & getting suggestions about what to do, where to go in ones spare time
- Giving & soliciting advice
- Giving & getting instructions about how to do things.
- Describing ones daily habits and routine.
- Describing other states such as certainty, uncertainty and doubt = expressing such things directly. Describing and inquiring about Cause and Effect in various areas
- Health, minor illnesses
- Language associated with travel.
- SHORT TERM Teach a few examples of the most frequent questions we use to get information from and about other people's jobs, nationality, where/live
- MID TERM Building on Wh corpus above, extend outwards to other functions such as inquiring into cause, asking about likes/dislikes. At the same time begin to contrast systematically the difference in construction between simple & progressive Qs.
- LONG TERM Help the learner towards generative competence in
Giving & Getting information about oneself & other people,
asking for things, suggesting things, offering & refusing things.
Relate these utterances to the structural principles underlying them:
- Word Order
- Can/Do/Did you (do)?
- Are/Were you (doing)?
- Have you (done) (been ....ing)?